PvC#1 | PvC#2 | PvC#3 | PvC#4 | PvC#5 | PvC#6 | PvC#7 | PvC#8 | PvC#9 | PvC#10

Another, social, arc of human history has been a gradual expansion of allegiance from immediate social groups to larger social groups, from families and tribes to states and nations, with the social inclusion and equal treatment before the law of more and more people previously marginalized or demonized as ‘the other’. This arc is largely an effect of the growing world population, and the consequent coming into contact of previously isolated groups, and recent social media. It involves recognition of the common humanity of children, former slaves, and women; of other ‘racial’ and ethnic groups; of sexual minorities; those who adhere to other ideologies and religions; and even other possibly intelligent (or cybernetic!) species.

Morality has evolved, to promote the well-being of larger and larger proportions of humanity. Morality does not derive from religion; rather, religions represent snapshots of the moralities of earlier, more primitive and less enlightened, states of humanity.